Greenland is an arctic Island, covers an area of 2,175,000 square kilometers and has a stable population of 49500 inhabitants. Along with the adjacent islands and islets, are an autonomous Danish territory. It is surrounded by the Greenland Sea to the east and the southeast Atlantic and the South West, a series of isolated seas and narrow the American Arctic archipelago. (Davis Strait, Baffin Sea, Smith Sound, Kane Basin , Kennedy Channel, Robeson).
The capital of Greenland is Nuuk (formerly Godthab).
The official languages are the Eskimo and Danish. Administratively the country is divided into three regions.
Since the quaternary Greenland is covered by a layer of hielopoco powerful inclined and somewhat uneven, high plateau, reaching at 3220 meters high. At the edges of this high plateau, the ice sheets, stand the nunutaks or isolated peaks devoid of perennial snow. The costs presented to the northwest, southeast and southwest, alpine ridges and peaks, sometimes very high as Mount Petermann of 2934 meters or 3440 meters of Mount Forel, to the west and north, a very regular low plateau , decreasing from south to north, the ice-free coastal area, Yderland, northwest and north, has in some places more than 100 kilometers wide. The whole coastline to the east rather than west, is cut by deep fjords.
Greenland's climate is only polar, but can distinguish regional variations. To the south, the vegetation consists of mosses and lichens, and some willows and a few dwarf birches. Northern Mexico is a vast desert plateau, which does not justify the ancient name of Greenland (the Greenland word means Tierra Verde).
Terrestrial fauna, rich individuals, is reduced to some species: reindeer, foxes, white and azyles, polar hare, polar bear, bear, musk, on the north coast, the birds are very numerous, eider ducks, petrels, penguins, notaries, gulls, snipe and ptarmigans.
The Greenlandīs population, composed of Inuit, Metis and a minority of Danish immigrants, are concentrated in a few hundred cores on the coast.
Fishing in Greenland (cod), which has led the creation of establishments canners and salted, and mining (cryolite, coal, lead, zinc, and in particular, uranium and oil) are the core activities. The sheep and the capture of seals complete the economic outlook.
Greenland was discovered in the tenth century by Icelander Eric the Red (982). It seems that in the Middle Ages had a fairly large Eskimo population and dispersed. In 1261 the island took the oath of allegiance to the king of Norway. However, the distruction of the "white" of Vesterbygd (1350), at the hands of the Eskimos, and Oesterbygd (early fifteenth century), meant the loss of contact with Europe Greenland. It was rediscovered by Frobisher, Davis and Hudson in the sixteenth century and colonized by Denmark. In 1814 Greenland became this country, which was not recognized by the United States and Great Britain to 1921 and Norway until 1933. In 1953 he became a Danish province. After the treaties of 1941 and 1951 with the United States, U.S. bases were established. Finally, in 1978, the Danish parliament approved the Greenland Home Rule, which came into force in May 1979.