Antarctica or Antarctic

Antarctica is a continent almost entirely included within the Antarctic Circle, about 13,000,000 square kilometers.

This continent is covered with a huge mass of ice whose volume is estimated at 20,000,000 square kilometers and whose thickness may exceed 2,000 meters. Only the highest peaks are rocky outcrops above the ice sheets.

The land of Antarctica Argentina are set high: in the same pole reach 2,804 meters. The costs of the Antarártida seem relatively regular and only seen two deep recesses: the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea, which ends with a huge ice shelf. On both sides of an imaginary line joining the two seas can distinguish two units. To the east, a crystal socket covered by sedimentary rocks that rise above the Ross Sea, forming a region with many faults and major volcanic massifs.

The West Antarctic Argentina consists mainly of the Antarctic Peninsula, the geological structure is folded and faulted, and it can distinguish three mountain ranges.

The rise of the Antarctic ice at relatively high, but the continent is not an area of stability, is often accused blizzard characters.

Most of Antarctica Argentina is subject to a regime of low temperatures and low summer polar hardly mitigates the harshness of cold.

Recorded in winter, often, temperatures below -60 º C, getting noticed, during the International Geophysical Year, temperatures of -88.3 ° C.

In summer, the Antarctic temperature rarely exceeds 0 º C, but the bumps in the low and high winds undoubtedly contribute, rather than the absolute minimum, the weather is unbearable. These physical conditions cause a large biological poverty on the continent itself, in which only there are some lichens. Only a few small water spots more or meno-free, due to volcanic phenomena, fairly wealthy sectors arise from the biological standpoint. On the contrary, the swath ocean has a large fauna, some species of which is overflowing on the mainland and coastal islands, a very abundant plankton fed different kinds of fish and large marine animals: cetaceans (whales) and pinnipeds, seals, Otari and elephant seals that form large colonies on the coast during the summer, the fauna of Antarctica Argentina is also characterized by the abundance of birds (boobies and marine), which form colonies consisting of hundreds of thousands of individuals.

Antarctic History Antarctica

The exploration of the Antarctic regions is more recent than the Arctic, dating back only to the nineteenth century and especially the discoveries led to the whalers who sailed the southern seas. Among the numerous nineteenth-century scientific expeditions, which have helped to raise awareness of this continent, deserve to be mentioned those of Dumont D'Urville (1937-1840), the Ross (1839-1843), the Nares (1874) and the Gerlache (1898-1899). However, it was not until the twentieth century, with the cooperation of international organizations, it was possible the systematic exploration. The pole itself was not located on the ground until, on December 14, 1911, Amundsen reached the 34 days before Scout. Aerial photography allowed after conducting appropriate cartographic.

Between 1957 and 1958, thanks to the International Geophysical Year, held a partnership between eleven states interested in Antarctica, about 800 technicians participated in the study of weather conditions, meteorological and magnetic properties of the continent. In 1973 there were already, in Antarctica, 34 bases (Argentina, Britain, Russia, United States, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, Republic of South Africa, France and Japan). Following the national Geophysical Year, in addition, SCAR (Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research) and signed the Antarctic Treaty, which entered into force in 1961, by twelve states (later expanded to nineteen) in order to maintain Antarctica for 30 years as a center international scientific interest, avoiding territorial deals and keeping the continent as a nuclear-free zone. However, in 1962, Britain unilaterally organized British Antarctic Territory, with land claimed by Argentina and Chile. Neither New Zealand, Australia, France, the Republic of South Africa and Norway have managed to remain faithful to the spirit and letter of the treaty.